POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE (POTASSIUM GIDROKIS, POTASSIUM LEACH, THE CAUSTIC POTASH, POTASSIUM HYDRATE, CAUSTIC POTASSIUM, CALI CAUSTIC)
Potassium hydroxiderepresents colourless, very hydroscopic crystals, but hygroscopicity is less, than at sodium hydroxide, it is well dissolved in water (allocates large number of heat), ethanol, methanol, it is not soluble in diethyl ether. Is the strong basis, treats alkalis. Aqueous solutions have silnoshchelochny reaction.
Density is 2,044 g/cm ³. Temperature of melting is 380 °C, temperature of boiling is 1327 °C.
Chemical formula: KOH.
Technical potassium hydrate (heat caustic) is received diaphragm electrolysis of solution of potassium chloride, usually using mercury cathodes that gives product of high purity, free of to impurity of chlorides.
Gidrokis potassium it is applied to production of fertilizers, synthetic rubber, plastic, electrolytes for accumulators, reactants, xanthogenates, for lixiviation of castings of steel molding, for maintenance in the set limits of alkalinity of boring solutions, in production of biodiesel fuel as the catalyst, used in pharmaceutical industry and other industries of national economy.
In the food industry it is registered as food additive (the acidity regulator) of E525.
Also it is used for receiving methane, absorption of acid gases and detection of some cations in solutions.
It is applied in production of liquid soaps as initial product for receiving different salts of potassium etc.
In zirconium production it is used for receiving the defluorinated zirconium hydroxide.
In the field of industrial sink the products on the basis of potassium hydroxide heated to 50-60 °C are applied to cleaning of products from stainless steel from fat and other oil substances, and also the machining remains.
It is used as electrolyte in alkaline (alcaline) batteries.
|Name of indicator||Norm for brand and grade|
|The highest||The first||The highest||The first|
|Appearance||Scales of green, lilac or gray color||Scales or plav green, lilac or gray color||Solution of blue, green or gray color, is allowed deposit|
|Mass fraction of caustic alkalis (KOH + NaOH) in terms of KOH, %, not less||95,0||95,0||54,0||52,0|
|Mass fraction of potash (K2CO3), %, no more||1,4||1,5||0,4||0,8|
|Mass fraction of chlorides in terms of Cl-, %, no more||0,7||0,7||0,7||0,8|
|Mass fraction of sulfates (SO42-), %, no more||0,025||0,05||0,03||0,1|
|Mass fraction of iron (Fe2+), %, no more||0,03||0,03||0,004||0,01|
|Mass fraction of hypochloric potassium (KClO3), %, no more||0,1||0,2||0,15||0,3|
|Mass fraction of silicon (Si), %, no more||0,01||0,02||0,015||-|
|Mass fraction of sodium in terms of NaOH, %, no more||1,5||2,0||1,7||2,0|
|Mass fraction of calcium (Ca2+), %, no more||0,01||0,01||0,005||-|
|Mass fraction of aluminum (Al3+), %, no more||0,003||0,005||0,003||-|
|Mass fraction of nitrates and nitrites in terms of nitrogen (N), %, no more||0,003||0,003||0,003||-|
Potassium hydroxide safety requirement.
Potassium hydrate negoryuch is also explosion-proof, on extent of impact on organism belongs to substances of the 2nd class.
|Main properties and types of danger|
|Main properties||The firm product - scales or plav green, lilac or gray color, liquid - solution of blue, green or gray color, is allowed the crystallized deposit. Hydroscopic product, we will well dissolve in water and alcohol; quickly absorbs carbonic acid and water from air and gradually passes into potash.|
|Vzryvo-and fire danger||Negoryuch, it is explosion-proof.|
|Danger to the person||Pyretic, at hit on skin and mucous membranes, especially eyes, causes heavy chemical burns and chronic diseases of integuments. Hit in eyes is especially dangerous.
In the form of solution or dust prizhigayushche on integuments and mucous membranes.
Dangerously at inhalation, hit on skin and in eyes. Cough, constraint in breasts, cold, dacryagogue, skin burn, has swelled century, sharp reddening of conjunctiva, defeat of iris of the eye. Chemical burn.
|Means of individual protection||The isolating protective KIH-5 suit complete with the isolating gas mask IP-4M or protective general L-1 or L-2 suit complete with industrial gas mask with the boss In, gloves from butyl rubber dispersion, special footwear.
At small concentration in air (at increase of maximum concentration limit to 100 times) - overalls, autonomous protective individual set with forced feed in zone of breath of cleaned air with cartridges of ROM, PZ-2 filtering respirator of "FORT-P", universal respirator of "Snezhok-KU-M", safety spectacles.
|Necessary actions in emergencies|
|General character||To take away the car to the safe place. To isolate dangerous zone in radius not less than 50 m. To modify the specified distance by results of chemical investigation. To remove strangers. To enter dangerous zone in protective agents. Injured to give first aid.|
|At leak, flood and scattering||To report in TsSEN. Not to touch prosypanny substance. To protect with Prosypaniya with earth shaft, to fill up with dry inert material, to collect in the dry tanks protected from corrosion, to close hermetically.|
|At the fire||To put on full protective clothes. Not to use water. To extinguish only powder means, dry sand, the soda calcinated.|
|Neutralization||To fill up scattering with dry sand, to collect in the dry, protected from corrosion tanks with observance of precautionary measures. To wash out the place of scattering large amount of water from the maximum distance, to obvalovat and not to allow hits of substance in surface waters. To process the washed-out surfaces of rolling stock and the territory weak acid solution.|
|Measures of first aid||At hit on integuments it is necessary to wash out immediately large amount of water, then to process affected area 1-2% solution of boric acid.
At hit in eyes it is necessary immediately and long to wash out them plentiful water jet, then 1-2% solution of boric acid. It is not necessary to rub eye. After first-aid treatment it is necessary to address to medical institution.
Packaging, transportation and storage.
Solution of potassium hydrate is filled in in pure steel containers or barrels with a capacity of 100, 200 and 275 dm ³. Solid potassium hydrate is packed into pure dry steelpans with a capacity of 50-180 dm ³. The product in the form of scales is allowed to be packed into steelpans with a capacity of 50-180 dm ³ with polyethylene inserts or into plastic bags.
Potassium hydrate is transported railway, motor and water transport in the covered vehicles according to rules of the transportation of goods operating on this type of transport. By rail products packed into barrels, bags and drums are transported povagonno and small sendings or filling in tanks. The potassium hydroxide packed into steel containers is transported only the motor transport.
Solution potassium hydrate is stored in special steel sealed containers. Drums with firm product store in the covered not heated warehouse or under canopy.
Warranty period of storage - 3 years from the date of production.