- Country of manufactureCzech Republic
(1,2,3 - trigidroksipropan, 1,2,3 - propantriol) CH2(OH)CH(OH)CH2(OH) (pier. weight 92,10). It is widespread in the nature in the form of glycerides - the main components of natural fats and vegetable oils. It is opened by the Swedish scientist K. Sheele in 1779.
Properties. Pure glycerin - flavourless colourless viscous sweetish liquid. With a normal pressure it melts at 18,6 °C and boils at 290 °C. We will dissolve glycerin in water and alcohols, we will moderately dissolve in air and ethyl acetate and it is insoluble in the majority of hydrocarbons. It easily reacts with many organic and inorganic compounds, forming esters, aliphatic and aromatic simple air and glycerides (glitserat) of metals.
Application. Glycerin is used in production of confectionery, medicines, cosmetics, paints, explosives, etc. The food industry adds glycerin to cakes and candies for improvement of a consistence, and to sugar glaze - for the prevention of crystallization of sugar. It is used also as solvent for extracts, fragrances and food dyes. In anesthetics, protivokashlevy means, mixtures and tinctures glycerin is applied because of its viscosity, and in cosmetics, rinsings, lotions, suppositories (medical candles) and toothpastes - to drying delay. With bibasic acids glycerin reacts with formation of the alkyd resins applied in production of coverings and paints. (Mix the nitric and concentrated chamois of acids smoking) glycerin interacts with the nitrating mix, forming nitroglycerine - an explosive component of dynamite and a cordite. Glycerin is used also at tobacco preparation (to keep leaves damp) as antifreeze as lubricant and as softener of cellophane and other plastics. Glycerin is added to glues and other binding materials for their protection from too bystry drying. In medicine glycerin is applied also as the protective environment for freezing of erythrocytes, by corneas of an eye and other living tissues.