Carbamide (urea) — chemical with a formula H2N - CO - NH2, excellently soluble in water, alcohol, liquid ammonia and sulphurous anhydride. In the industry the carbamide is synthesized from ammonia and carbon dioxide by means of Bazarov's reaction. For this reason production of a carbamide is most often combined with production of ammonia.
The carbamide contains about 46% of nitrogen, thereby, being the most concentrated nitrogen fertilizer. Fertilizer is produced two brands A and B. The brand A is intended for industrial use, brand B — for agriculture. Substance is perfectly dissolved in water and at storage does not slezhivatsya. It is applied to all views of soils as the main and preseeding fertilizer, and also as top dressing.
The carbamide as one of the most widespread nitrogen fertilizers for the soil was widely adopted in agriculture of Ukraine. It is caused, first of all by its advantages which treat: acceleration of growth of vegetative mass of a plant, growth of protein content in grain, substantial increase of level of productivity of the majority of cultures. Also such properties of this fertilizer as ease of application, a steady form, bystry solubility and ease of assimilation by plants did not stand aside.
Efficiency of the carbamide used as the main fertilizer concedes nothing to ammonium nitrate known for all. At the same time the carbamide contains the greatest number of nitrogen that provides high expediency of its use.
The carbamide is also used as extra root top dressing of vegetable, fruit crops and late podkormok wheat, directed to increase in protein content in ready grain. The carbamide is valuable the fact that at contact with a plant there is no burn, so, harm is not done to leaves. This quality provides excellent comprehensibility to fertilizer. At the same time at superficial entering into the soil, a carbamide it is necessary to close up at once to prevent losses of nitrogen because of ammonia volatilization.
When using a carbamide in sour soils it is recommended to use on each centner of fertilizer as calcium carbonate additive 0, 8ts. Also the carbamide can be mixed with phosphate rock or superphosphate. It should be noted that the carbamide is extremely steady against leaching that is especially urgent for irrigation agriculture. Fertilizer can be introduced to the soil as in a firm look, so in the form of solutions with other liquid nitrogen fertilizers.
Most often the carbamide is used as fertilizer for potatoes, sugar beet and vegetable cultures.
· Wheat, rye, oats: the main introduction at the rate of 100 - 150 kg on 1 hectare.
· Sunflower: about 80 - 120 kg on 1 hectare.
· Corn grain: preseeding or main introduction — 110 - 160 kg on 1 hectare.
· Vegetable cultures: before landing 5 - 12 grams on 1 sq. m are brought; during vegetation – top dressing at the rate of 5 - 10 grams on 1 sq. m; extra root top dressing before blossoming – 3 liters of working solution (50 - 60 grams of a carbamide on 10 liters of water) on 100 sq. m of the processed culture.
· Trees and bushes, decorative and fruit and berry: Top dressing is made in 5 - 7 days after completion of blossoming and repeated processing in 21 - 28 days – introduction 20 - 30gramm the carbamide dissolved in 10 liters of water or on 1 sq. m 15 - 20 grams of a dry carbamide.